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School Playbook

Originally published 12/7/2020 | Updated 12/29/2020


Created in collaboration with

Curamericas Global

Duke Health

Supply Hawk

Stop the Spread




Table of contents

1. Source control        4

1.1 Masking policy        4

Universal masking policy        4

Mask selection and provision        4

Strategies to reinforce mask wearing        4

1.2 Risk-mitigation during mealtimes        6

Mealtime safety        6

Food handling        6

1.3 Daily screening and community dashboard        7

Screening tool        7

Community dashboard        7

1.4 Management of individuals with positive screening        8

Symptomatic individuals        8

Asymptomatic individuals with positive screening        8

Individuals who develop symptoms at school        8

Summary table        10

1.5 Isolation/quarantine        11

Academic wellbeing        11

Socioemotional wellbeing        11

2. Population density control        12

2.1 Physical distancing        12

Classrooms        12

Hallways and restrooms        12

Buses        12

2.2 Ventilation        14

Reopening buildings after shutdown        14

Air filters        14

Open air        14

Alternative spaces        14

2.3 Student cohorts        15

Creation of cohorts        15

Scheduling cohorts        15

Facilitating learning within cohorts        15

Limiting interaction between cohorts        15

2.4 Arrival and dismissal procedures        16

Entrances        16

Screening compliance        16

Arrivals and departures        16

2.5 Adult interactions        17

Meetings        17

Common spaces        17

Visitors        17

3. Sanitation        18

3.1 Personal sanitation        18

Sanitation routines        18

Sanitation supplies        18

3.2 Environmental sanitation        19

Standard sanitation protocol        19

Sanitation after exposure        19

4. Communication and compliance        20

4.1 Family communication plan        20

Communication strategies        20

Information to be communicated        20

Situational communication        20

4.2 Community communication plan        21

Information to be communicated        21

4.3 Vaccination messaging        22

General information        22

Family and staff education        22

Tracking vaccination status        23

4.4 Auditing plan        24

4.5 Non-compliance accountability        25

Reporting system        25

Accountability strategies        25

5. Extracurriculars        26

5.1 Risk mitigation        26

General guidance        26

Performing arts        26

Sports        26

Appendix A: Extracurricular Event Policy for Visiting Teams        28

Appendix B: Modifications for students with special needs        30


1. Source control

1.1 Masking policy

Masks are one of the most effective measures to contain COVID-19. Several studies have provided evidence supporting the role of universal mask wearing to prevent COVID-19 transmission.[1],[2] Universal mask wearing can build solidarity within the community and promote compliance.[3]

Key recommendations

  • Masks must be worn by all students from kindergarten through 12th grade and staff when indoors and on buses
  • Masking policy should be disseminated to families in their preferred language on multiple platforms
  • Signage with masking instructions should be posted in all classrooms, hallways, restrooms, and cafeterias
  • Back-up masks should be available for students and staff on campus
  • Consider strategies to create cultural norms reinforcing mask wearing


Universal masking policy

  • All students from kindergarten through 12th grade, teachers, staff, and all visitors are required to wear masks throughout the day when inside school buildings (even when physically distancing) and on buses (see bus policy)
  • Children in preschool are recommended, but not required, to wear masks
  • Exceptions per NC Executive Order No. 180 include individuals who
  • should not wear a face covering due to any medical or behavioral condition or disability
  • are under 5 years old
  • are actively eating or drinking (see mealtime policy in section 1.2)
  • are seeking to communicate with someone who is hearing-impaired in a way that requires the mouth to be visible
  • are children whose parent or responsible person has been unable to place the mask safely on the child’s face
  • Masks may be taken off outside when 6 feet of distance can be maintained
  • Teachers are recommended to schedule in mask breaks throughout the day while distanced outdoors
  • Masking policy should be disseminated to families in their preferred languages on multiple platforms including mail, email, and on via school website
  • Signage with masking instructions should be posted in all classrooms, hallways, restrooms and cafeterias


Mask selection and provision

  • Either multi-layered cloth masks or disposable surgical masks are appropriate
  • Cloth masks should be washed in hot water and dried on high heat after each use
  • Surgical masks should be disposed of after each use (cut off strings to prevent accidental animal injury)
  • Face shields should not be used to replace masks
  • Free masks should be available for individuals who arrive without a mask or who require a new mask during the day
  • Schools are recommended to provide reusable cloth masks and washing instructions to all students and staff
  • See here for CDC poster on mask selection


Strategies to reinforce mask wearing

  • Partner with families and caregivers by communicating about masking expectations in their preferred language through multiple mediums including mail, email, and the school’s website
  • Develop lesson plans to discuss why masks are important
  • Creatively encourage mask wearing by hosting “design your own mask” events or distributing school spirit masks
  • Normalize mask wearing through images and social media campaigns
  • Develop a consistent approach for students who break masking protocol
  • Negative reinforcement is not as effective as positive reinforcement and increases the risk of students weaponizing non-mask wearing
  • Suggested initial approaches include a private or class-wide reminder to avoid singling students out, permitting students to take mask breaks at a designated location, or a private discussion at safe distance
  • For students who display persistent nonadherence to the masking policy, refer to section 4.4 for behavior management strategies




1.2 Risk-mitigation during mealtimes

There is no evidence so far to suggest that COVID-19 can be transmitted through food.[4] However, individuals can be exposed to respiratory particles on food packaging. More commonly, respiratory particles can be transmitted between individuals when sharing meals in close proximity in areas with poor ventilation.[5]


Key recommendations

  • Students should be seated 6 feet apart before removing their masks to eat
  • Alternative dining locations should be considered such as outdoors or in classrooms
  • Develop personal and environmental cleaning routines before and after meals
  • Pre-packaged meals and disposable food items should be used to limit mealtime exposures


Mealtime safety

  • During mealtimes, students should be seated 6 feet apart before removing their masks to eat
  • Masks should be placed on a clean paper towel or stored in a plastic bag while eating
  • Hand hygiene and environmental sanitation routines should be implemented before and after meals (see sanitation policy)
  • Students should remain in their classroom cohorts during mealtimes to limit cohort exposures between cohorts
  • Schools are required to
  • Provide seating markings in the cafeteria to ensure that students sit 6 feet apart
  • Have floor markings to remind students to remain 6 feet apart in lines
  • Establish a maximum capacity for cafeterias and consider alternative options including staggered dining or alternative locations for meals to ensure adequate distancing
  • Schools are recommended to consider alternative dining locations including in classrooms or outdoors
  • Classroom considerations:
  • Food may be delivered to classroom or students may pick up food from the cafeteria at designated times
  • Develop a process to clean the classroom before and after meals including wiping down desks and provision of large trash bags for food disposal
  • Outdoor considerations:
  • Students should remain 6 feet apart when eating outdoors
  • Create a backup plan for inclement weather
  • Snacking should be discouraged outside of designated meal times
  • Students may be permitted to drink in the classroom, but only one individual may remove their mask at a time


Food handling

  • Self-service food or drink stations should be discontinued
  • Water fountains should only be used to fill bottles, students should not drink directly from fountains
  • Schools are recommended to
  • Collaborate with cafeteria staff and/or food vendors about pre-packaged meals
  • Provide disposable food service items (preferred) or washed with soap and hot water after use
  • Implement contactless payments for food such as prepaying for meals online or with self-service card machine
  • Students may continue to bring meals and utensils from home
  • To limit staff exposure, student should directly place trash into waste bins after meals



1.3 Daily screening and community dashboard

Daily symptom monitoring allows schools to quickly identify symptomatic and/or exposed individuals and connect them to testing and medical care. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 among children are fever and cough though some (16–20%) may not experience symptoms at all.[6],[7] Symptom monitoring, testing, and isolation/quarantine should be paired with at-home learning support (Section 1.5) to ensure that students do not experience learning loss.


Key recommendations

  • All students and staff should be screened for symptoms every morning prior to entering campus
  • Screening tool should be accessible with translation and a verbal/written option available when necessary
  • A community dashboard should be updated weekly to share community and school-specific COVID-19 statistics and should be updated at least weekly


Screening tool

  • Parent/caregiver consent should be obtained for daily symptom screening; policy for positive screening should be shared
  • See here for an example consent form
  • Screening tool should assess for the following:
  • Fever (100.4° Fahrenheit or higher) or chills
  • New cough
  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Close contact (less than 6 feet for more than 15 minutes) with someone recently diagnosed with COVID-19
  • New diagnosis of COVID-19 since last in school
  • To limit student contact, an online survey should be used to conduct daily screening
  • Students should be issued a “pass” to enter campus if they report no symptoms, exposures, or new diagnoses
  • For students with limited access to the internet, verbal/written screening upon arrival should be performed
  • For families who are not fluent in English, the tool should be translated into their preferred languages
  • Interpretation services should be identified if schools need to communicate with families regarding students’ symptoms


Community dashboard

  • The community dashboard should be maintained on a visible platform, such as the school’s webpage
  • The community dashboard should include the following:
  • School statistics
  • Count and percentage of positive cases in school in past 7 days and 30 days
  • Count and percentage of cohorts with positive cases in past 7 days and 30 days
  • Number of cohorts with >2 cases from separate households
  • School scorecard breakdown
  • County statistics
  • Average positive cases per 100,000 in past 7 days
  • Average test positivity rate in past 7 days
  • Hospitalization rate (percent inpatient beds occupied) in past 7 days
  • Community dashboard should be updated weekly, at minimum



1.4 Management of individuals with positive screening

Symptomatic individuals should isolate and pursue medical care and COVID-19 testing when possible. Studies have shown that infected people can be infectious several days prior to development of symptoms. Contact tracing aims to identify exposed individuals starting from two days prior to symptom onset.[8],[9]


Key recommendations

  • Symptomatic individuals should stay home, seek medical care, and pursue COVID-19 testing
  • See here for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 protocol
  • Exposed individuals should stay home for 14 days since exposure (see here for full quarantine policy)
  • Diagnosed individuals should stay home for 10 days since initial positive COVID-19 test
  • A reporting system and isolation space should be established for students who develop symptoms at school


Symptomatic individuals

  • Defined as presence of >1 symptom: fever, new cough, difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, or loss of taste/smell
  • Should not attend school that day and seek medical care and pursue COVID-19 testing
  • If individuals are confirmed COVID-19 positive or will not be tested, they should stay home until 1) 10 days since initial symptoms, 2) no fever for 24 hours, AND 3) improvement of symptoms
  • Individuals with a negative rapid antigen test should stay home until follow-up PCR/molecular test confirms negative result
  • Individuals with a negative PCR/molecular test should stay home until they are afebrile AND feeling well for 24 hours
  • If individuals receive an alternative diagnosis from a healthcare provider and no COVID-19 testing is recommended, they can return to school after their fever resolves and they are feeling well for 24 hours


Asymptomatic individuals with positive screening

  • Exposed individuals who have had close contact (within 6 feet for at least 15 minutes) with someone who tested positive within 2 days should stay home for 14 days since exposure
  • Per the CDC’s new guidance on reducing quarantine time, exposed individuals who do not develop symptoms and have a negative antigen or PCR test on or after day 5 of quarantine may end quarantine at 7 days 
  • Exposed individuals who do not develop symptoms and are not tested may end quarantine at 10 days
  • Though 14 days of quarantine is still recommended, if individuals choose to end their quarantine early per guidelines above, they should continue to wear masks, physically distance, and monitor symptoms for full 14 days (and isolate immediately if they become symptomatic)
  • See here for full quarantine policy
  • Individuals who have been diagnosed with COVID-19 should stay home for 10 days since their initial positive COVID-19 test

Individuals who develop symptoms at school

  • Staff should be trained to recognize COVID-19 symptoms and report students who develop symptoms during the day
  • A reporting system should be established for students who develop symptoms at school
  • Symptomatic student should report to nurse or designated staff member and be placed in an isolation space
  • Isolation room should be sanitized between uses, well-ventilated, and completely walled off from other areas
  • Nurse or designated staff should assess symptoms with appropriate PPE including a face mask, gloves, and gown
  • For schools who have access to BinaxNOW rapid antigen testing, see this toolkit for further information
  • If student is develops symptoms during the day, a parent or caregiver should be called (sample call script) and provided with information on testing and isolation (same protocol as outlined in Symptomatic individuals above)
  • All areas visited by the symptomatic student in the past 72 hours (including classrooms, bathrooms, and buses) should be closed off and disinfected (see section 3.2 for environmental sanitation instructions)
  • All close contacts of symptomatic individual in past 2 days should quarantine until individual’s test results are confirmed
  • If the symptomatic individual tests positive, all close contacts in the past 2 days should be tested (ideally 5 days after last contact) AND quarantine for 14 days from the time of last contact
  • All suspected cases should be reported to the local health department (confirmed cases are automatically reported)

Summary table

Positive screening category





Fever, new cough, difficulty breathing or shortness of breath, or loss of taste/smell

Positive test or no COVID-19 testing

Stay home until 1) 10 days since initial symptoms, 2) no fever for 24 hours, AND 3) improvement of symptoms

Negative rapid antigen

Stay home and pursue confirmatory PCR/molecular testing.
Follow positive test guidelines (above) or negative test guidelines (below) based on results.

Negative rapid antigen AND PCR/molecular confirmatory test

Stay home until 1) afebrile AND 2) feeling well for 24 hours

Healthcare provider provides alternate diagnosis and does not recommend COVID-19 testing

Stay home until 1) afebrile AND 2) feeling well for 24 hours


No symptoms

Either positive rapid antigen or PCR/molecular test

Stay home for 10 days since initial positive COVID-19 test

Close contact


Plan to quarantine for 14 days and if possible, pursue testing on or after day 5 of quarantine

No symptoms during quarantine and negative test on or after day 5 of quarantine

Quarantine can be discontinued at 7 days with continued symptom monitoring for 14 days since initial contact

No symptoms during quarantine and no testing

Quarantine can be discontinued at 10 days with continued symptom monitoring for 14 days since initial contact

Symptoms during quarantine and positive or no testing

Considered to be infected

Stay home until 1) 10 days since initial symptoms, 2) no fever for 24 hours, AND 3) improvement of symptoms

Symptoms during quarantine with negative testing on or after day 5 of quarantine

Continue to stay home and pursue retesting. If the 2nd test is negative, stay home until symptoms are improving.



1.5 Isolation/quarantine

Isolation and quarantine (see here for definitions) can exacerbate inequalities among students, putting those from low-income or other disadvantaged backgrounds at risk of learning loss.[10] To ensure adequate support for these students, schools should enable remote participation in the curriculum and have accessible socioemotional support for students requiring isolation/quarantine.


Key recommendations

  • Schools should ensure that quarantined/isolated students have access to internet and supplies
  • Teachers should create a plan to support students participating in classroom activities remotely
  • Quarantined/isolated students should be provided with mental health support through check-ins with school counselors at least twice per week

Academic wellbeing

  • Teachers should work with families to ensure that isolated/quarantined students have access to internet and supplies
  • Teachers to create a plan for students to participate in classroom activities remotely
  • Assignments should be clearly communicated to students
  • Lessons should be recorded when appropriate
  • If technology permits, consider including remote students in live classes through Google Classroom or Zoom
  • Teachers or teaching assistants should regularly check-in with students virtually to guide them through assignments and answer questions
  • Parents/caregivers should be provided with resources to support students’ learning

Socioemotional wellbeing

  • School counselors should check-in with isolated/quarantined students to provide mental health support at least twice per week
  • Offer to debrief traumatic events associated with isolation/quarantine experience
  • Refer students to professional counseling if needed
  • Train staff on trauma-informed responses to student anxiety, especially for isolated/quarantined students returning to the classroom
  • Students should be assessed for food insecurity and be provided with meals if needed
  • Though HIPAA regulations do not apply to schools,[11] students’ privacy should be protected per the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
  • While schools are allowed to disclose the number of students with COVID-19, in most cases schools should not identify infected students unless there is a health or safety emergency.
  • U.S. Department of Education’s FAQ on disclosing information about COVID-19 cases



2. Population density control

2.1 Physical distancing

Guidance on distancing in classrooms varies with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommending 1 meter of separation versus the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommending 6 feet.[12] In the absence of local guidance, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that desks should be at least 3 feet, but ideally 6 feet, apart.[13] 


Key recommendations

  • Physical distancing of ideally 6 feet should be maintained in school buildings, outdoors, and on buses
  • Schools should implement either one-way traffic or use “lanes” in hallways
  • Seating arrangements should be planned and clearly marked on buses to promote physical distancing


  • Though some guidelines (e.g., WHO) suggest physical distancing by 3 feet, we recommend that students remain separated by a distance of 6 feet when possible per CDC guidelines
  • Classrooms should be measured to determine maximum capacity given physical distancing
  • Unnecessary furniture may be removed to accommodate more students
  • Desks should be placed 6 feet apart and face the same direction
  • A seating chart should be created to facilitate contact tracing if necessary
  • If student desks are unable to be 6 feet apart, at minimum ensure 6 feet of distance is maintained between teacher and students to avoid potential staffing shortages in the setting of a student infection
  • Alternative learning spaces (such as gyms, libraries, auditoriums, outdoors, etc.) may be utilized if there is staffing availability
  • A teacher-only area should be designated to limit physical contact with students
  • Keep students in one classroom throughout the day to minimize transitions


Hallways and restrooms

  • Hallways should either only accommodate one-way traffic or use “lanes” to separate those walking in opposite directions
  • Hallways should be clearly labeled with directionality (e.g., arrows on the floor)
  • Individuals should not be permitted to linger in the hallways
  • Lockers/locker room should be suspended, and alternative places in classroom should be identified for belongings
  • Transition times should be staggered to limit the number of individuals in hallways at one time
  • Restroom use should be staggered, and every other stall should be closed to promote physical distancing



  • Students should remain distanced by at least 3, and ideally 6 feet, while on buses
  • Seats should be clearly marked to ensure adherence to physical distancing
  • Windows should be open when possible, even if only 2–3 inches on inclement weather days
  • Students should have “passed” daily symptom monitoring prior to boarding buses (see screening compliance policy)
  • Consider recruiting parent volunteers to check daily passes and administer surveys if not completed
  • Encourage alternative transportation options such as walking, biking, or personal vehicle when possible
  • Possible seating arrangements:
  • One student per bench on both side, skip every other row on each side, or alternate rows to form a zig-zag pattern
  • Seat students from back to front during pick-up
  • For drop-offs, assign seats in order of drop-off so that students dropped off first are seated in front
  • Consider seating siblings together to increase capacity, bus student cohorts together when possible
  • See section 3.2 for policies on environmental sanitation



  • Adjust room specifications, ventilation rates, face mask usage,and respiratory activities for customized guidelines

2.2 Ventilation

SARS-CoV-2  is primarily transmitted through larger respiratory droplets and possibly through smaller aerosol droplets as well. Prior studies have suggested the importance of ventilation and particle filtration to prevent viral transmission.[14]


Key recommendations

  • Ensure that HVAC system is regularly inspected and that air filters are working properly
  • Increase air circulation by opening windows, using box fans, and running exhaust fans in bathrooms
  • Identify alternative spaces for classes to meet including large indoor or outdoor spaces

Reopening buildings after shutdown

  • Prior to reopening, buildings should be inspected for mold, water systems should be flushed with hot water to reduce risk of Legionella contamination, and water should be tested for heavy metals


Air filters

  • HVAC equipment should be checked and inspection scheduled if needed
  • Open dampers and set HVAC system to “high refresh” or “economy” to bring in more outside air
  • In buildings where HVAC fan is controlled by thermostat, set the fan to “on” instead of “auto” to allow continuous operation
  • Don’t reduce or turn off HVAC system during before- or after-school hours when staff may still be in the building
  • Run HVAC system at maximum outside airflow for 2 hours before and after school is occupied
  • Ensure HVAC air filters are installed correctly and maintaining airflow across the filter
  • MERV-13 or higher air filters, which effectively remove viral particles, should be used
  • Filters should be cleaned and replaced regularly per manufacturer’s instructions
  • Place portable air purifiers with HEPA filters in higher risk areas such as the nurse’s office
  • Maintain humidity levels at 40-60%, consider using this low-cost hack if funding is limited
  • Consider using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 if options for room ventilation are limited
  • See CovidStraightTalk’s hacks for low-cost ideas to improve ventilation, especially their box fan air filter


Open air

  • Open windows as much as possible while balancing student allergies and pollution, wear jackets on cooler weather days
  • Use box fans on open windows to help circulate air
  • Keep exhaust fans running at all times in bathrooms


Alternative spaces

  • Identify large indoor or outdoor spaces that could be used as classrooms
  • Consider the following when selecting spaces: Will teachers be able to monitor all students? Will the whole class be able to hear the teacher? Will people outside of the school community be able to access the space? Will students be able to safely travel to/from space? Will it be possible to acquire coverings for outdoor spaces?
  • Implement a system for teachers to reserve indoor or outdoor areas



2.3 Student cohorts

Cohorting keeps the same students and staff in one group to minimize the number of individuals exposed to each other. Research has shown that clustering individuals can be an effective way to mitigate risks associated with in-person meetings.[15]


Key recommendations

  • Cohorts should be created based on physically distanced classroom capacity (with a maximum of 25 people)
  • Create a consistent schedule for cohorts
  • Interactions between cohorts should be limited by scheduling movement

Creation of cohorts

  • Cohorts should be limited to 25 people (including students and staff) based on the physically distanced classroom capacity
  • Consider available resources when deciding whether to group students heterogeneously versus homogeneously based on skill level or academic need
  • Though more logistically challenging, heterogeneous groupings provide a richer learning experience for students
  • Homogeneous groupings should consider educational needs such as interventionists (e.g., ELL learners), differentiated classes (e.g., advanced placement), and clubs or after-school activities
  • Group students from the same household or bus route together when possible


Scheduling cohorts

  • Based on space availability, create a consistent schedule for cohorts (e.g., alternating half days, daily, or weekly)
  • Identify special student populations who should receive priority (e.g., English learners, students with learning disabilities, students with vulnerable home situations, etc.) for in-person learning


Facilitating learning within cohorts

  • If implementing heterogeneous groupings, offer a differentiated curriculum (e.g., advanced placement alongside normal material) to engage students at all skill levels
  • If implementing homogeneous groupings, create opportunities for virtual heterogeneous learning to promote diverse student interactions
  • Consider how to best balance cohorting while ensuring access to a variety of subjects
  • Possible options include offering special classes remotely, having core teachers facilitate activities planned by specials teachers, or consolidating specials in a single period (i.e., three days in a row instead of every other day)
  • For older students who may be pursuing different courses, consider having subject-specific teachers create online content with cohort leaders supporting students to complete their work
  • Also consider supporting teachers to source content from colleagues to become their cohort’s content leader


Limiting interaction between cohorts

  • Cohorts should remain together throughout the day and stay consistent day to day
  • Movement of cohorts should be scheduled to limit outside contact (e.g., for masks breaks or outdoor time)



2.4 Arrival and dismissal procedures

Designating separate entrances/exits for cohorts and staggering arrivals/departures ensure that students are not congregating in these areas. Entrances also serve as a check-points to screen students for new symptoms or exposures.

Key recommendations

  • Entrances and exits should be designated and clearly labeled for different cohorts
  • Arrival and departure times should be staggered to prevent students from congregating
  • Daily symptom checks should be confirmed/performed at entrances



  • Designate and clearly label entrances/exits for different student cohorts, selected based on proximity to classroom
  • Arrivals and departures should be staggered by cohort (see Transcend Education’s schedule planning template)
  • Place markings 6 feet apart outside of school entrances to reinforce physical distancing
  • Hand sanitizer and face masks should be available at entrances for students who forget theirs at home
  • If students/parents are self-reporting fevers on daily symptom monitoring tool, schools are not required to take student temperatures at entryways
  • If schools choose to take temperatures at entryways, touchless thermometers should be used
  • Post signs at entrances requesting that symptomatic individuals should not enter


Screening compliance

  • Students should show their daily symptom check “pass” upon arrival
  • Alternatively, teachers can look up student symptom check status to ensure completion
  • For students who have not completed their symptom check, staff should conduct a verbal/written assessment
  • For bus riders, students should be screened prior to entering bus (see bus policy in section 2.1)
  • Consider recruiting parent volunteers to check daily passes and administer surveys if not completed


Arrivals and departures

  • Identify staff to oversee student arrival/departure
  • For student pick-up, families should remain in car and display student name and classroom on their windshield
  • Alternatively, consider creating official pick-up tags for families to display
  • Students should be dropped off at the curb
  • Younger students may need to be escorted by a staff member to the entrance
  • To avoid excessive congestion at pick-up time, consider having students meet their rides in the parking lot or nearby streets
  • Staggered drop-off and pick-up times and locations should also be assigned for buses
  • Families should be provided with instructions for drop-offs/pick-ups, including timing and location





2.5 Adult interactions

Adults should adhere to the same protocols as students with regards to symptom monitoring, masking, and physical distancing. Visitors on campus should be limited whenever possible.


Key recommendations

  • Staff meetings and collaborative planning sessions should be virtual when possible
  • If in-person meetings are held, staff should maintain physical distancing at all times
  • Physical distancing should be enforced in all common spaces
  • Visitors should be permitted on campus by invitation only and screened for symptoms upon arrival



  • Staff meetings and collaborative planning sessions are recommended to be held virtually using platforms such as Zoom or Google Hangouts
  • If in-person meetings are held, staff should remain 6 feet apart at all times and consider meeting outdoors or in a well-ventilated area
  • Conference rooms should be arranged to promote physical distancing (e.g., marking seats 6 feet apart or taping off chairs)
  • All parent-teacher conferences should occur virtually


Common spaces

  • Teachers and staff should remain physically distanced in common spaces including teacher lounges and break rooms
  • Physical distancing should be reinforced by placing markings 6 feet apart
  • Furniture may be rearranged to promote distancing
  • Maximum capacity based on physical distancing guidelines should be determined and enforced, especially during high traffic hours such as in the morning and at mealtimes
  • Consider staggering breaks when possible
  • Staff should be encouraged to eat in alternative spaces such as outdoors or the cafeteria
  • Masks should be worn at all times unless actively eating (and 6 feet away from others) and should be replaced after finishing meal
  • Replace communal items such as coffee pots and bulk snacks with pre-packaged items


  • Visitors on campus should be limited whenever possible and avoid entering classrooms
  • A list of who is allowed on campus and those not allowed without invitation should be created and communicated to teachers, parents/caregivers, and community members
  • Individuals allowed on campus without restrictions should include students, teachers, and staff
  • Individuals requiring invitation should include parents/caregivers, police, and community members
  • This list should be posted on entrances with a number to call for more information
  • Visitors should check-in at reception and conduct symptom screening prior to entering school building
  • Vendors should enter through a designated separate entrance



3. Sanitation

3.1 Personal sanitation

To prevent the spread of COVID-19, individuals are recommended to sanitize hands using an alcohol-based hand rub with 60–95% alcohol or with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.[16],[17]


Key recommendations

  • A hand-washing/sanitizing schedule should be created and implemented
  • Personal sanitation supplies (e.g., soap, hand sanitizer, and paper towels) should be estimated, ordered, and available
  • Hand sanitizer dispensers should be placed in all entryways, classrooms, and common areas

Sanitation routines

  • Build a routine for hand-washing/sanitizing by creating a schedule
  • Hand sanitation should occur before 
  • leaving home
  • leaving the classroom
  • eating
  • touching shared objects
  • touching one’s face
  • leaving school
  • Hand sanitation should occur after 
  • arriving at school
  • entering the classroom
  • finishing lunch
  • touching shared objects
  • using the bathroom
  • coughing/sneezing/blowing nose
  • arriving at home

Sanitation supplies

  • Supplies including soap, hand sanitizer, and paper towels should be estimated based on number of students and staff
  • Approximately ⅓ gallon of hand sanitizer should be allocated per classroom per week
  • Plain soap is often more affordable and has a similar efficacy to antibacterial soap[18]
  • Paper towels are preferred to air dryers in bathrooms
  • Identify reliable suppliers, place orders early, and consider ordering in advance for the year
  • Hand sanitizer dispensers (preferably automatic) should be placed at all entrances, in all classrooms, and in common areas (including cafeterias, bathrooms, and reception areas)




3.2 Environmental sanitation

SARS-2-CoV can survive on surfaces for hours to days, depending on type of surface.[19] Factors such as warmer temperatures and sunlight exposure could reduce virus survival time on surfaces.[20]


Key recommendations

  • A cleaning schedule should be created and cleaning responsibilities should be designated
  • Cleaning supplies and personal protective equipment should be ordered and available
  • A protocol for environmental sanitation after a COVID-19 exposure should be developed

Standard sanitation protocol

  • Responsibilities for cleaning designated areas should be assigned
  • Consider having students participate in cleaning duties
  • A cleaning schedule should be created
  • Desks/tables, chairs, counters, bookcases, and shared spaces should be cleaned once a day and between cohorts
  • Door handles, light switches, handrails, and sink handles should be cleaned every 2–4 hours and between cohorts
  • Toys, games, art supplies, instructional materials, tablets and keyboards should be cleaned between uses
  • Eating surfaces should be cleaned before and after meals
  • Buses should be cleaned at least daily and ideally between uses
  • Determine amount of cleaning supplies and personal protective equipment needed and place orders in advance
  • Cleaning solutions and disinfecting wipes should be EPA approved to kill SARS-2-CoV
  • Disposable or reusable gloves should worn when disinfecting surfaces
  • All individuals involved should be instructed on best practices for cleaning including the following:
  • Disposable or reusable gloves should be worn at all times
  • Wash hands immediately after gloves are removed
  • If surfaces are dirty, they should be cleaned using soap and water prior to disinfection
  • Don’t mix disinfecting agent as products may react with each other
  • Ventilate room while cleaning by opening windows and turning on fans


Sanitation after exposure

  • All areas visited by infected individual in past 72 hours should be closed off
  • Open windows and turn on fans to increase air circulation
  • Wait 24 hours (or as long as possible) before beginning cleaning
  • Per standard sanitation protocol, visibly soiled surfaces should be washed with soap and water prior to using an EPA approved disinfectant
  • Space can be used again 12 hours after disinfection


4. Communication and compliance

4.1 Family communication plan

A critical component of schools’ COVID-19 response will be the communication plan to families. Clear communication promotes family buy-in, improving student adherence to policies, and increases transparency, empowering families to make the best decisions for themselves.[21]


Key recommendations

  • Create a consistent two-way channels of communication with families
  • Establish a clear, consistent communication plan in families’ preferred languages, which should include a roadmap to reopening and weekly updates
  • Develop a plan to communicate infection, exposure, instructional changes, or partial/complete school closure
  • Develop a plan to identify and engage unreached families

Communication strategies

  • Listen to parent/caregiver questions and concerns by hosting virtual town hall meetings and offering multiple options for communication
  • Designate a point person to answer questions related to COVID-19 (consider nurses, teachers, or principal)
  • Establish a clear, consistent communication plan with families in their preferred languages
  • Utilize a variety of methods for communication including mail, email, text, social media, and via school website
  • Train staff on key messaging to ensure consistency
  • Develop a plan to identify and engage unreached families
  • Consider having parents/caregivers respond to initial communication by verifying contact information
  • Consider engaging partner organizations and community relationships to reach families

Information to be communicated

  • Disseminate a clear roadmap to reopening outlining policies and plans—consider the following format
  • Acknowledge that the safety of students and teachers is a common priority
  • Offer a compelling reason why schools have decided to reopen
  • Outline a clear, concrete plan that will be implemented including student expectations
  • Ask for parent/caregiver partnership to accomplish the above goals
  • Commit to transparency and outline a plan for future communication
  • After reopening, weekly communication to families should include latest community and school-specific COVID-19 statistics (see community dashboard), changes to education plans, and updates to public health guidelines

Situational communication

  • Develop a communication plan for student/staff exposure or infection, instructional changes, or partial/complete school closure (see Engage Equitably for sample phone and email scripts for each scenario)
  • Verify parent/caregiver contact information should urgent communication be required
  • Ensure that student medical history (including primary care provider) is up-to-date
  • Confirm that all students have an emergency contact listed



4.2 Community communication plan

Reopening schools inherently increases transmission risk not only for students and families but also the community at large, and maintaining in-school learning requires that the entire community adhere to disease mitigation measures.[22] Two-way communication should be established early to obtain community support and participation in school reopening plans.


Key recommendations

  • Identify and establish two-way communication with key stakeholders in the community
  • Update stakeholders with information about school-specific COVID-19 statistics and changes to education plans at least every 2 weeks

Communication strategies

  • Identify key stakeholders in the community
  • Consider including the following entities: teachers, staff, school board, Department of Public Health, Department of Education, local businesses, local media
  • Identify a point person to facilitate communication with stakeholders (consider principal or district leaders)
  • Consider regularly hosting town hall meetings or distributing surveys to identify and address each group’s values and concerns
  • Use a variety of communication channels to communicate with stakeholders which may include newsletters, social media, blog posts, op-eds, interviews, and virtual presentations

Information to be communicated

  • Information disseminated should include latest school-specific COVID-19 statistics (see community dashboard in section 1.3) and any changes to education plans
  • Updates should be communicated at minimum every 2 weeks
  • Decisions to scale down or close schools are multifactorial, so creating a strict criteria may not be feasible. To promote transparency among the community, schools should identify indicators guiding these decisions and regularly report metrics associated with each indicator.




4.3 Vaccination messaging

The FDA has recently authorized two COVID-19 vaccines (produced by Pfizer and Moderna) for emergency use. However, there is concern about mistrust and low uptake among marginalized communities that have historically been disenfranchised by the health system.[23],[24] Given schools’ strong relationship with communities and families, they are in a unique position to begin bridging this gap by providing education to parents/guardians about COVID-19 vaccination.


Key recommendations

  • Provide education to families/staff about COVID-19 vaccination and consider campaigns to improve public trust and uptake
  • Schools may track staff/student vaccination status using its standard protocols for vaccination documentation
  • Vaccination status should remain confidential and only cohort- or school-wide data should be made available to staff and families

General information

  • COVID-19 vaccines are produced by two companies (Pfizer and Moderna) and have been found to be 95% effective at preventing infection with no serious safety concerns in clinical trials
  • Individuals cannot get COVID-19 from the vaccine
  • Most common side effects are pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, chills, fever, and joint/muscle pain
  • The vaccines were built upon decades of research to develop vaccines for similar viruses
  • See here for more information on the technology behind COVID-19 vaccines
  • Individuals ages 16+ are eligible for the Pfizer vaccine, and individuals ages 18+ are eligible for the Moderna vaccine
  • Pfizer is currently conducting additional studies to evaluate vaccine use among children 12–15 years old
  • The vaccination series consists of 2 shots given 3–4 weeks apart
  • North Carolina will be rolling out COVID-19 vaccination in the coming months in 4 phases (see here for infographic):
  • Phase 1: Health Care Workers and Long-term Care Staff and Residents
  • Phase 2: Older adults
  • Phase 3: Frontline Essential Workers
  • Phase 4: Adults at High Risk for Exposure and Increased Risk of Severe Illness
  • Phase 5: Everyone
  • Vaccination is free regardless of insurance status
  • Until everyone is vaccinated, COVID-19 precautions including masking, physical distancing, and sanitation should still be practiced to keep people safe

Family and staff education

  • Though vaccines are not available at present to all students, schools should begin providing education to staff and families about COVID-19 vaccination
  • When vaccines become available to staff and/or students, provide eligible individuals with information on how/where to receive their vaccine
  • Consider implementing a social media campaign to showcase photos of administrators/staff receiving vaccine to help build public trust
  • Consider partnering with representatives from the local public health department, medical providers, and/or scientists to host a town hall for families and staff regarding vaccination

Tracking vaccination status

  • Schools should collect staff/student COVID-19 vaccination status based on standard protocol for vaccination documentation
  • Vaccination status should remain confidential, and only cohort- or school-wide data should be available to non-administrative staff and families



4.4 Auditing plan

Routine monitoring and evaluation of schools’ COVID-19 responses provide information for school leaders to make timely decisions, address community needs, and identify areas for growth to promote the wellbeing of students, staff, and the community at large.


Key recommendations

  • Basic program evaluations should be conducted at least monthly using this scorecard or alternative method
  • Audit reports and strategy adjustments should be shared with families and the community at large
  • Consider performing qualitative evaluations to evaluate perceptions and experiences of key stakeholders

Auditing strategies

  • Assess school’s capacity conduct the auditing plan
  • If resources are available, a third-party auditor is preferred to reduce bias and offer a new perspective
  • See this checklist for developing evaluation budgets
  • If resources are limited, identify a staff member to oversee the auditing plan
  • Consider recruiting undergraduate/graduate students from nearby institutions if available to assist with evaluations
  • Basic program evaluations should be conducted at least monthly to ensure timely identification of needs and implementation of changes
  • If time and funding allows, qualitative evaluations are recommended to evaluate the experiences and perceptions of key stakeholders regarding the school’s COVID-19 response
  • Audit reports and strategy adjustments should be shared with families and the community at large to promote transparency
  • Refer to this checklist for tips to improve data visualization




4.5 Non-compliance accountability

Individual non-compliance should first be addressed with positive reinforcement strategies. However, for individuals who remain willfully non-compliant, schools should have a clear policy to mitigate their risk to others. This policy should be disseminated to families prior to school reopening.


Key recommendations

  • A reporting system should be implemented to report non-compliant students and staff
  • A clearly outlined protocol to address policy non-compliance should be created and disseminated prior to schools reopening

Reporting system

  • Implement a reporting system to report non-compliant students and staff
  • One example system is the STOPit Anonymous Reporting System, which has agents who monitor and escalate incidents as needed
  • Schools may also create an anonymous survey (e.g., on Google Forms) to report incidents
  • A staff member should be designated to monitor surveys daily to provide timely responses

Accountability strategies

  • In the interim, students should be placed in a separate room to reduce risk to other students
  • A virtual family meeting should be held to identify strategies to improve student policy adherence
  • If student remains non-compliant after successful communication with family, they should be temporarily transitioned to virtual learning while working with parent/caregiver on habits to improve policy adherence
  • See this guide to helping children adjust to wearing masks
  • For students who do not have adequate support at home, consider alternative strategies to mitigate risk while continuing to offer support—such conducting physically distanced lessons outdoors
  • Non-compliant staff members should be given a verbal warning for their first violation and a written warning for their second violation
  • If staff members remain non-compliant, they should be suspended until they can demonstrate commitment to adhering to safety policies
  • Accountability strategies should be disseminated to families and staff prior to school reopening to promote transparency






5. Extracurriculars

5.1 Risk mitigation

Due to COVID-19, limited engagement with extracurricular activities may negatively impact students’ physical and mental health[25] and put them at greater risk of dropping out.[26] Modifying extracurriculars can allow students to have important outlets for creative expression while balancing student safety.


Key recommendations

  • Extracurricular activities should be held virtually when possible
  • Activities that require in-person meetings should be conducted outdoors with appropriate masking, physical distancing, and personal hygiene
  • Sport practices should be held outdoors, and contact sports should be modified to maintain physical distance

General guidance

  • Identify clubs that can be conducted virtually (e.g., student government, debate team, cultural clubs, etc.)
  • Determine which spaces may be used for extracurricular activities before and after school
  • Consider implementing a system for clubs to reserve spaces should in-person meeting be required
  • Consider new activities to engage students that are lower risk (e.g., virtual volunteering, art club, horticulture, etc.)
  • Extracurriculars in which individuals will be in close contact (<6 feet) or that result in excessive aerosol production (e.g., band or choir) should be modified based on local COVID-19 statistics
  • See West VIrginia’s School Re-entry Toolkit (p.24) for example guidance of extracurricular activity modifications

Performing arts

  • Individual mitigation techniques
  • Masks should be worn at all times
  • Surgical style masks with a slit for mouthpiece are recommended for band members
  • Flutes, clarinets, and recorders may place their headjoint between their mouth and mask
  • Choir singers should wear a 3-layer surgical style mask
  • Multi-layered bell covers should be used by all wind instruments
  • Physical distance of 6x6 feet (and 9x6 feet for trombone players) should be maintained
  • Practice good hygiene by washing hands, using sanitizer, and prohibiting uncontrolled spit valve release
  • Rehearsal spaces, in order of preference
  • Rehearsals should be held virtually when possible
  • If virtual rehearsals are not possible, identify an outdoors space to allow for appropriate distancing
  • If outdoor spaces are not available, indoor spaces may be utilized
  • HVAC outdoor air exchange rate should be maximized
  • MERV-13 or higher filters or HEPA air purifiers should be used
  • Indoor rehearsals should be limited to 30 minutes followed by at least one (preferably 3) air exchanges per hour to replace indoor with outdoor air


  • Contact sports (e.g., football, soccer, wrestling, hockey, etc.) should not be resumed, but individual training/drills can continue if physical distancing is maintained
  • Sports with no or limited contact (e.g., cross country, track and field, tennis, swimming, golf, etc.) can be continued with physical distancing, proper hygiene, and masks (except when actively exercising 6 feet apart outdoors)
  • Indoor sports (e.g., volleyball, basketball, etc.) should be moved outdoors
  • If athletic games are held outdoors, occupancy should be limited to no more than 25 people when indoors and 100 people or 30% occupancy (whichever is less) when outdoors
  • Spectators should maintain 6 feet of physical distancing



  • Sports
  • Music

Appendix A: Extracurricular Event Policy for Visiting Teams

Information for visiting coaches and teams

  • Athletes should remain masked at all times, even when vigorously exercising—except when outdoors with 6 feet of physical distancing and swimming
  • Students with medical conditions prohibiting them from wearing a mask will need documentation from a licensed medical provider
  • Visiting team should sanitize hands upon arrival and regularly throughout the event
  • Please bring your own sanitizer and sanitizing wipes if possible
  • Instruct all team members to cover their coughs and sneezes and sanitize their hands afterwards
  • Coaches and athletes should be screened prior to arrival for the following:
  • fever (100.4° Fahrenheit or higher) or chills
  • new cough
  • difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • new loss of taste or smell
  • close contact with someone recently diagnosed with COVID-19
  • new diagnosis of COVID-19 in last 10 days
  • If coaches or players screen positive, they should remain home, seek medical care, and not attend the event
  • If a team is unable to compete due to circumstances related to COVID-19, please notify the hosting school as soon as possible and (if applicable) submit verification of the need to postpone to the North Carolina High School Athletic Association
  • Teams should bring their own athletic training equipment and hydration to limit contact
  • Equipment sharing will be minimized, and when possible, equipment will be sanitized between users
  • Water bottles should not be shared
  • Athletes should arrive dressed for the event to limit use of locker rooms
  • Athletes warming up and waiting to compete should sit together on the visitor side
  • Physical distancing should be enforced while warming up and waiting
  • Seats will be spaced out 6 feet apart when possible to promote distancing
  • Teams will not switch sides halfway through the event
  • If warm-up spaces are limited, warm-up periods may be extended to safely accommodate all athletes
  • Only designated people will be permitted to speak with referees
  • Athletes should not shake hands or otherwise contact the opposing team before or after the game


Information for spectators

  • Masking and physical distancing of 6 feet will be enforced upon arrival
  • Household members may sit together, but 6 feet of distance should be maintained between households
  • While spectators are permitted to remove masks when outdoors and physically distanced per NC masking regulations, we recommend that spectators keep their masks on when possible for the duration of event
  • Outdoor facilities are limited to 30% maximum capacity or 100 people, whichever is less
  • Indoor facilities are currently limited to 10 people
  • Players, coaches, and support staff do not count towards maximum capacity
  • We recommend that spectators be limited to immediate family members only
  • Spectators should not attend if they have symptoms, recent close contact, or COVID-19 diagnosis
  • Visitor fans should remain on the visitor side and home fans should remain on the home side
  • Spectators should adhere to signage with instructions for foot traffic and refrain from using marked-off seats
  • Food and drinks will not be offered at events
  • Spectators may bring their own drinks/snacks though drinking/eating indoors should be limited as much as possible
  • Do not share food, drinks, or other personal items with people outside of households
  • Spectators should refrain from yelling, chanting, and singing
  • Instead, consider showing support by stomping, clapping, or using handheld noise makers
  • Spectators should not approach the court/field before, during, or after the event
  • Spectators should exit the facility promptly after the conclusion of the event



Appendix B: Modifications for students with special needs

When masking and physical distancing cannot be completely enforced, other factors such as classroom density and air ventilation/filtration should be adjusted to maximize student/staff safety.



  • Per NC Executive Order No. 180, individuals with any medical or behavioral condition or disability may be exempt from wearing a mask
  • When deciding if individuals certain disabilities should wear a mask, assess if they can...
  • Use a mask correctly
  • Avoid frequently touching mask and face
  • Limit sucking, drooling, or having excess saliva on the mask
  • Remove the mask without assistance
  • For students who may be able to tolerate wearing a mask to some extent, consider the following interventions to maximize student/staff safety:
  • Increasing frequency of mask breaks while physically distanced outdoors (preferred) or indoors
  • Designate an area of the room where students may remove mask away from others
  • Prioritizing mask wearing at certain times of day in high-density settings, such as hallways or bathrooms
  • Allowing students with tactile sensitivities to choose masks of a variety of materials, textures, and prints
  • Implementing positive reinforcement strategies, such as...
  • Verbal affirmation or small rewards for consistent masking
  • Allowing students to decorate their own masks
  • Practicing putting masks on doll/stuffed animal and then practicing on themselves
  • Asking parents/guardians to practice wearing masks with students at home
  • While face shields are typically not recommended as a replacement for masks, they may be an alternative for students who are unable to tolerate masks
  • Provide teachers with clear masks when working with students with hearing impairments


Classroom adjustments

  • Physical distancing
  • Reinforce physical distancing with prominent visual cues such as marking the floor with tape or dividing the room with furniture
  • Use fun activities (e.g., making airplane arms) to remind students to physically distance by 6 feet
  • Class room capacity
  • Air ventilation/filtration
  • Increase ventilation by having special needs classes in larger spaces, opening windows, and using box fans
  • Increase filtration by placing air purifiers with HEPA filters or a low-cost box fan air filter in special needs classrooms
  • Increase humidity to a goal of 40-60% by placing humidifiers in special needs classrooms or using this low-cost hack 
  • Routine sanitation
  • Increase frequency of cleaning high-touch surfaces such as desks/tables, chairs, counters, bookcases, and shared spaces to every 2–4 hours and between cohorts
  • Develop hand hygiene routines throughout the day and reward students for adhering to routines


Social stories

  • Social stories are designed to introduce students with special needs to a social concept and can be used to help them understand COVID-19
  • See here for a variety of social stories related to COVID-19 practices including mask wearing and physical distancing





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[2] Lyu, Wei, and George L. Wehby. "Community Use Of Face Masks And COVID-19: Evidence From A Natural Experiment Of State Mandates In The US: Study examines impact on COVID-19 growth rates associated with state government mandates requiring face mask use in public." Health affairs 39, no. 8 (2020): 1419-1425.

[3] Howard, Jeremy, Austin Huang, Zhiyuan Li, Zeynep Tufekci, Vladimir Zdimal, Helene-Mari van der Westhuizen, Arne von Delft et al. "Face masks against COVID-19: an evidence review." (2020).

[4] Olaimat, Amin N., Hafiz M. Shahbaz, Nayab Fatima, Sadia Munir, and Richard A. Holley. "Food Safety during and after the era of Covid-19 pandemic." Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020): 1854.

[5] Li, Yuguo, Hua Qian, Jian Hang, Xuguang Chen, Ling Hong, Peng Liang, Jiansen Li et al. "Evidence for probable aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a poorly ventilated restaurant." medRxiv (2020).

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[7] Assaker, Rita, Anne-Emmanuelle Colas, Florence Julien-Marsollier, Béatrice Bruneau, Lucile Marsac, Bruno Greff, Nathalie Tri, Charlotte Fait, Christopher Brasher, and Souhayl Dahmani. "Presenting symptoms of COVID-19 in children: a meta-analysis of published studies." BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia (2020).

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[9] He, Xi, Eric HY Lau, Peng Wu, Xilong Deng, Jian Wang, Xinxin Hao, Yiu Chung Lau et al. "Author Correction: Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19." Nature Medicine 26, no. 9 (2020): 1491-1493.

[10] Valerie Strauss, “Perspective | How Covid-19 Has Laid Bare the Vast Inequities in U.S. Public Education,” The Washington Post (WP Company, April 14, 2020),

[11] Office for Civil Rights (OCR), “513-Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule Apply to an Elementary or Secondary School,”, December 18, 2015,

[12] Joanne Silberner, “The Debate Over Covid-19 Distancing: How Far Is Far Enough?,” Medscape (Medscape, August 26, 2020),

[13] American Academy of Pediatrics, “COVID-19 Planning Considerations: Guidance for School Re-Entry,”, August 19, 2020,

[14] Morawska, Lidia, Julian W. Tang, William Bahnfleth, Philomena M. Bluyssen, Atze Boerstra, Giorgio Buonanno, Junji Cao et al. "How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised?." Environment international 142 (2020): 105832.

[15] Leng, Trystan, Connor Whie, Joe Hilton, Adam J. Kucharski, Lorenzo J. Pellis, Helena Stage, Nicholas G. Davies, Matt J. Keeling, and Stefan Flasche. "The effectiveness of social bubbles as part of a Covid-19 lockdown exit strategy, a modelling study." medRxiv (2020).

[16] “Hand Hygiene Recommendations,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 13, 2020),

[17] Kratzel, Annika, Daniel Todt, Philip V'kovski, Silvio Steiner, Mitra L. Gultom, Tran Thi Nhu Thao, Nadine Ebert et al. "Efficient inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations and alcohols." BioRxiv (2020).

[18] “Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, October 8, 2020),

[19] Van Doremalen, Neeltje, Trenton Bushmaker, Dylan H. Morris, Myndi G. Holbrook, Amandine Gamble, Brandi N. Williamson, Azaibi Tamin et al. "Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1." New England Journal of Medicine 382, no. 16 (2020): 1564-1567.

[20] “Cleaning and Disinfecting Your Facility,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, September 2, 2020),

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[24] Carmen Sesin, “Mistrust, Disinformation among Latinos on Covid Vaccine Worries Hispanic Doctors,” (NBCUniversal News Group, December 21, 2020),

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[26] Shawna De La Rosa, “Lack of Extracurriculars Hurts School Engagement during Pandemic,” Education Dive, November 13, 2020,